If you’re a skilled worker in a specific niche, like marketing, design, or software development, there are specialty marketplaces that cater just to you. These are amazing places to make money online as you know that the people visiting them are looking specifically for the skills you have. Check out places like 99Designs or Dribbble for designers, Cloudpeeps for marketing and SEO professionals, and TopTal, Crew, or Gigster for high-level software developers. Once you've built up your development skills, you can begin building a brand for yourself as a higher-value consultant and start charging brands for larger projects like implementing an entire WordPress security overhaul or migrating a website from http to https.

Basically, within the whole customer conversion funnel, from awareness stage to purchase, there should be a strong match between your product and your audience. In the funnel, customers start with the awareness stage. And when the product has great conversion rates, it means that customers move quicker through the funnel down to the sale stage, where brands and affiliates make money.


Holly told me she started writing content in 2011. At the time, she still worked a full-time job but created content online part-time to supplement her income. Over time, she was able to double and triple her rates until she could quit her full-time job to write. These days, she makes bank as a freelance writer and teaches others to do the same via her online course, Earn More Writing.


^ Shashank SHEKHAR (2009-06-29). "Online Marketing System: Affiliate marketing". Feed Money.com. Archived from the original on 2011-05-15. Retrieved 2011-04-20. During November 1994, CDNOW released its BuyWeb program. With this program CDNOW was the first non-adult website to launch the concept of an affiliate or associate program with its idea of click-through purchasing.
Two-tier programs exist in the minority of affiliate programs; most are simply one-tier. Referral programs beyond two-tier resemble multi-level marketing (MLM) or network marketing but are different: Multi-level marketing (MLM) or network marketing associations tend to have more complex commission requirements/qualifications than standard affiliate programs.[citation needed]

Repeat business is the key. It’s a lot easier and cheaper to market to a repeat customer than it is to acquire a new one. In fact, the average business spend seven times more in marketing cost to get a new customer than it does to keep an existing one. When you’re doing hit and run affiliate marketing, what you are in fact doing is spending that 7X more money to acquire a customer for SOMEONE ELSE! Can you see now why most hit and run affiliate marketers don’t make money?


It is important to keep your expectations to generate dividends but to make money with Clickbank is not as simple as grabbing a lot of affiliate links, place on your blog and see the package of bills. To make the most of the ClickBank, there are some things you should know, and some strategies to be followed; today I will try to give you some light on the matter. Pay attention.
This is an awesome post. I have always believed this information to be true. I find that list building and building your relationship with the list has always been effective. The worst thing is to spam your list or send CPA offers. If you really want a quality list, write your own emails and make them personal. I find that adding …”Your Friend…” to the signature works really well. Building trust and like-ability will keep you in the game. To your success!

There are a variety of tasks that you may be asked to perform. This can include delivering documents, delivering food or restaurant meals, taking pictures of a building for a real estate developer, taking pictures of a menu in an upscale restaurant, or even delivering auto-parts. If you have a good working car (or even a good bicycle), time on your hands, and a lot of energy, this can be a real opportunity to make money online.


Epic post! I’ve been hunting around various sites like Pat Flynn’s and others, but they never put everything together as you have. Now it starting to make sense for once. So, I’m a newbie and don’t even know the different between internet marketer and digital marketer or what this type of business is even called. I just want to learn this business and create a small passive income online in any niche. Because I know very little, I was actually planning to use this very same Sales Funnel in your diagram and all the tools mentioned to make my first couple of bucks online.
Affiliate Disclaimer – if you sign up for SiteGround using my affiliate link I will donate a good chunk at no expense to you. This year I donated $3,000 to feed the homeless in Denver. In 2017, I donated $3,000 to American Red Cross at Hurricane Harvey. Your support helps and I genuinely appreciate it. I try to make my reviews unbiased and backed by evidence in the form of Facebook polls, tweets, and real conversations. If you don’t want to use it, here’s a non-affiliate link to SiteGround. Either way I truly believe they’re the best host and that your site will run faster/smoother… do your research on Google and Facebook groups and you’ll find most people say the same.
If you are a confident web developer then designing your own themes is an obvious path to follow if you are looking to make money online. ThemeForest sells a wide assortment of developers themes, including themes for WordPress, Shopify, Weebly, and Tumblr, to name a few. Once you have created your theme, get it accepted onto the ThemeForest marketplace and make money each time it sells.
Since it is much easier to sell a product than create one worth selling, more time and resources are spent teaching people how best to become a successful affiliate of others as opposed to starting their own program. But in today’s post I’d like to cover at least the basics of what it takes to create an affiliate program around your own product or service.
(f)You will not bid on or purchase keywords, search terms, or other identifiers, including the word “amazon,” Kindle,” or any other trademark of Amazon or its affiliates or variations or misspellings of any of these words (“Proprietary Terms” and you can see a non-exhaustive list of our trademarks in the Non-Exhaustive Trademarks Table) or otherwise participate in keyword auctions on any Search Engine if the resulting paid search advertisement is a Prohibited Paid Search Placement (as defined in the Fee Statement). You may purchase paid search advertisements and submit links to Search Engines to appear in response to a general Internet search query or keyword (i.e., in natural, free, organic, or unpaid search results), so long as you comply with the Agreement and those paid or unpaid search results send users to your site and not directly, or indirectly via a Redirecting Link (as defined in the Fee Statement), to an Amazon Site.
Once you sign up to become an affiliate with ClickBank, you will immediately be able to browse the different products available to sell. ClickBank has tens of thousands of products available, so in the beginning it's helpful to search by niche and commission percentage until you locate offers that you want to promote. Make sure you take the time to look at the vendor's sales page before promoting their product. They might be offering a 75% commission rate, but if their website doesn't look trustworthy or put together you aren't going to generate many sales, no matter how much traffic you drive their way.
Wealthy Affiliate focuses on getting organic traffic through Google, using content as the main driver. Sounds like you have that down with your website already. Though if you are struggling to monetize 100k visitors a month, my guess is that you are not creating targeted content, and you are not creating content that lends itself to sales. I would work on doing more research about topics related to your niche, and see if you can find some keywords with more “buyer intent” that relates to your niche!
Hold a yard sale. If you have a yard or garage and plenty of items to sell, you can have a yard sale as early as tomorrow. By advertising your sale on local Facebook pages and Craigslist, you can also skip the paid newspaper ad and keep all of the profits for yourself. If you don’t have time to price everything, try asking patrons to “make an offer” or grouping similar items on tables with an advertised price (e.g. everything on this table is $5).

Cost per click was more common in the early days of affiliate marketing but has diminished in use over time due to click fraud issues very similar to the click fraud issues modern search engines are facing today. Contextual advertising programs are not considered in the statistic pertaining to the diminished use of cost per click, as it is uncertain if contextual advertising can be considered affiliate marketing.
Ebates has long been one of my favorite services and they offer an awesome referral program. This service pays members cash back on their online purchases – and some in-store purchases now. When you refer your friends, you will earn $5 per person when they make their first purchase of $25 or more. They also offer some stellar bonuses if you can refer a number of people. And, they offer a $10 gift card for new members.
Answer: This is a common question. The answer is that the most successful internet marketers, and the ones that make the most money, understand both sides of the ClickBank business model. Further, almost all vendors also make money as affiliates for products and services related to their own. And most tenured affiliates eventually start to offer their own products on the vendor side. It’s a virtual double-dip model.
Once you’re financially stable, I hope you start giving back. It feels good and people like the idea of supporting a good cause (they will be more likely to click your affiliate link in your disclaimer). This also means you don’t have to use as many links in your content and risk getting a penalized. Last year I donated $3,000 to Red Cross At Hurricane Harvey.
More than half a billion products are sold on Amazon every month, making it an incredible opportunity to make money online. But, like everything else that involves making money online, you have to do quite a bit of work to earn it. One option on Amazon is to find products that are already made and buy and sell them at a discount. For example, you could research generic products such as clocks, keychains and mugs to attach to your brand. For an incredible deep dive on how to make extra money with this strategy, check out how digital marketer Neil Patel recently did this as a public experiment right here on his blog.
Product Reviews are like Ray-Ban affiliate online marketing never go out of style. If a customer is interested in a product, most likely will find reviews of that product, and if you make a compelling review, something that inspires the customer to buy going to be very successful (a). But because the recommendations are so popular on clickbank affiliate marketing, competition is high, and traffic keywords are low. If you work with highly targeted niche will help you avoid this problem, but you must be prepared (a) to work hard and perform a lot of experiences before seeing significant increases in traffic, clicks, and conversions.
(a) You will not add to, delete from, or otherwise alter any Program Content in any way, including by adding additional information, except that you may resize Program Content consisting of a graphic image in a manner that maintains the original proportions of the image or truncate Program Content consisting of text in a manner that does not materially alter the meaning of the text or cause the text to become factually incorrect, or misleading. Some types of links that we may make available to you may contain a link to an informational page on an Amazon Site that is not formatted as a Special Link (for example, links to privacy policy information at the bottom of banners); without limiting the generality of the foregoing, you will not remove, obscure, or alter, or make invisible, illegible, or indecipherable to visitors of your Site, any “Privacy Information” link.

But don't make the mistake of thinking this will be a passive source of income—you're on call whenever you have a guest and you'll always need to keep the place clean for incoming visitors. On top of just renting on Airbnb, consider offering your guests paid add-ons, like Lauren Gheysens', Royal Day Out in London, England—where she gives visitors a local's only tour of the city, complete with bespoke 18th century costumes.

Ready to enter the ecommerce fray? Why not sell your own stuff. Of course, along with selling your own stuff on your own website comes a whole slew of both responsibilities and technical configuration and requirements. For starters, you'll need a website and a hosting account. You'll also need a merchant account (sure you can use Stripe or PayPal). Then you'll need to design that site, build a sales funnel, create a lead magnet and do some email marketing.
Has anyone ever told you you have a voice for radio? Are you great at creating original characters with just your voice? There are tons of people looking to pay for quality voice overs for their corporate videos, animation series, or educational videos. Check out Fiverr and UpWork or create a profile on a specialized site like Voices.com or The Voice Realm to get started making money online doing voice overs.

Creating your own food blog, will not only be fun but done well it should also be profitable. Link your site to affiliate cooking products, sell your food photos, create and sell your own physical cookbook, or launch a cooking app. Equally, you could turn your cooking blog into a membership site. You would then share all your content, including recipes, how to videos, food photographs, and much more, with only your paid up members.
This is a VERY high quality course with an Instructor who really cares about his students. I learned so much in such a short amount of time and loved that KC covered all bases throughout this course!! I will be giving this oh-so-simple system a go tomorrow and highly recommend it to anyone who is looking for an easy way to get in the affiliate game." – Jamie Briggs
However, not matter what method you choose to make money online, understand that you might be able to make some money fast, but for the sizable returns, you'll need significant sweat equity. However, a year from now, you'll be happy you started today. Remember, time is far more valuable than money. Focus on creating passive income streams that will free up your time so that you can quit the rat race and focus on the things that matter. That's the important thing here. 
The Amazon Associates “Influencer Program” is a country specific program that is available in select countries. You may earn fees by acting as a social media presence facilitating customer purchases as part of the Influencer Program in connection with your participation in the Associates Program. In order to participate in the Influencer Program, an eligible Associate (“Influencer”) must meet Amazon qualitative and quantitative thresholds, complete the registration process, and comply with the applicable provisions of the Agreement, including this Influencer Program Policy.

Unfortunately, the 2Checkout dashboard is a bit limited in scope, making it difficult to get any metrics on conversion rates or even sorting by commission payouts. The workaround is to go to the Avangate store, which does list their best-selling products, and then search for these on the affiliate dashboard. That being said, 2Checkout does offer products from more than 4,000 different vendors, making it the leading affiliate network for software and digital products.


But it literally changed my life… I moved out of my parent’s house (sigh) into a nice studio in downtown Denver, bought my first car (a Mercedes c300), adopted 2 kitties, and my credit raised 45 points. I also donated $6,000 to GoFundMe campaigns. I’m a humble dude but in affiliate marketing, the numbers do the talking. So… I want to show you how I did it. Enjoy!
FlexJobs is 100% legit. While it may not be necessary for everyone, if you have limited time available to dig around on the internet and vet companies for legitimacy it’s well worth the investment. They research each job lead to make sure it is truly remote or flexible and it isn’t a scam. I’ve had a membership for a very long time and find it well worth the small investment.
If you have pop-ups and optins on every page, I would have to think that it would be a lot harder to convince someone to link to it. Especially since the pages where you have your optins (and probably receive the most traffic) are probably the same pages that you have your best content on as well that you’d be hoping to pitch in your outreach campaign.

nice article on clickbank i however make a lot more money with cb its not hard to make money if you choose a good product to promote i like to use blogger for my content make it look professional and dont try to over sell things add title, description & keyword meta tags and let google do the rest i also use facebook which has over 8 billion users 😉
Signing up with Google AdSense will enable you to make money from advertising on your blog. Google AdSense will place relevant ads around your site, and if your site visitors click on these ads, you will earn a fee. Although each click only amounts to small change, if your blog has high levels of traffic and lots of page views this will quickly amount to a reasonable sum.
(v) You will not cloak, hide, spoof, or otherwise obscure the URL of your Site containing Special Links (including by use of Redirecting Links) or the user agent of the application in which Program Content is displayed or used such that we cannot reasonably determine the site or application from which a customer clicks through such Special Link to an Amazon Site.
The money is most certainly in the list. If you're at all interested in online marketing, setup email software and create a lead magnet that you can use in your sales funnel. Then, build up that list. It's often said that you can expect to earn about $1 per subscriber per month. If you have a list of 10,000 subscribers, that means you can earn roughly around $10,000 per month. You will need to deliver value and not pitch them on every email, but it is a very achievable goal in a short period.
Now, if you don’t know people who might want your coaching services, there are a number of online tools and communities that make it incredibly easy to find clients and teach, on just about any topic area you can think of. Community driven platforms like Savvy.is, Clarity.fm, and Coach.me provide you with a network of potential clients to interact with, as well an integrated payment solution.

In the first email I first send them the link to the lead magnet a second time (the excuse to email them) and ask them if they saw the offer (affiliate link). I then go on and give a bullet point list of why I think they should get it as well as maybe 1 testimonial to give it credibility and start easing into the emotional realm. I’ll usually finish with a question, opening a loop making them want to open the next email.
Thank you for your useful share above about the features and outlook of click bank and how we can make use of click bank in the future. I totally agree that there are many poor quality products on Clickbank. However, if we are serious about making money with CB, we can still get the opportunity by applying some useful tricks as what you mentioned in this writing. Thanks again!

In April 2008 the State of New York inserted an item in the state budget asserting sales tax jurisdiction over Amazon.com sales to residents of New York, based on the existence of affiliate links from New York–based websites to Amazon.[45] The state asserts that even one such affiliate constitutes Amazon having a business presence in the state, and is sufficient to allow New York to tax all Amazon sales to state residents. Amazon challenged the amendment and lost at the trial level in January 2009. The case is currently making its way through the New York appeals courts.

It is important to note, however, that StudioPress is now a subsidiary of WPEngine which is the company that actually does the web hosting on which StudioPress’s Genesis framework runs. The affiliate program only works with choosing the StudioPress framework and themes, not the actual hosting on WPEngine. WPEngine has a separate affiliate program for its hosting services, which yes, is a bit confusing.
And while it will take time to build up a big-enough audience to attract advertisers and other ways to make extra income from your podcast, the opportunity is there. John Lee Dumas interviews entrepreneurs seven days a week for his podcast Entrepreneur on Fire and now makes more than $200,000 a month from it. In fact, John publishes all his income online and showed that he’s made almost $13 million since launching in 2012.
Although it has a dynamic and well-designed website, PeerFly has a limited range of offers at any given time (around 8,000). On the upside, it does offer good commission/payout rates, lots of FAQs and educational information, and regular contests and reward programs that can substantially increase your bottom line. Based on online customer reviews, Peerfly enjoys a very high reputation amongst participating affiliates.

What is ClickBank? ClickBank (CB) is an online marketplace that connects digital content creators with affiliate marketers. This article gives the information about how to make money with ClickBank in 2018. Founded in 1998, ClickBank has become the most important network of affiliates in the United States and is one of the most visited sites in the world. There are only a few places on the web where you can find online guitar lessons, guides to increase your height and tutorials of all kinds, all under the same domain. CB is one of them.
Thanks for the great article. If i’m a manufacture/seller and want hire affiliate to promote our product, which are the most effective ways to do so? To be more specific, we’re a start-up selling glass vessel sinks and high end kitchen sinks/faucets(www.arsumo.com).We’d like to give high commission rates for marketers to sell our product (10+%). Our product quality is great and we sell on wayfair and overstock currently but like to grow our own marketing channel. Thank you for your advise! I’m also considering to take your class to dive deeper into the marketer world.

What these opportunities typically turn up to be is a pyramid scheme. You pay a fee to signup. You then receive a flyer saying how great stuffing envelopes is and list of names and addresses to mail said flyer. IF those people pay that signup fee so they can mail that flyer too, you get paid a small referral fee. ONLY if they take the bait do you get paid.
If you don’t mind doing other people’s chores, then TaskRabbit is a great option for making money online. Earn extra income by walking your neighbor’s dog or mowing Mr. Smith’s lawn. It might seem like not the most lucrative option, but the top taskers reportedly earn as much as $7000 a month, making this a full-time way to make money online for some.

There’s a good reason why ClickBank is still a strong contender, however it does tend to focus more on digital products which may be of questionable quality. Yes, the review process is more professional these days, but it’s still primarily focused on selling digital products, especially “how to make money” courses and the like. That being said, there are some genuinely high-quality products on offer, and few affiliate programs are bigger than ClickBank, especially in selling (primarily digital) books.
Of course you want affiliates with high commissions, but they should also have a solid reputation with high conversions and low reversal rates (you get $0 if people cancel after signing up). If they’re part of an affiliate marketplace like ShareASale or ClickBank you can see some numbers there. Companies likes Amazon/SiteGround are safe bets, otherwise do your research (or track your affiliate links so you can monitor their performance). Avoid affiliates offering huge commissions since this probably means they’re struggling to acquire/retain customers naturally. This will hurt your numbers (specifically your conversions/reversal rates).
If you want to help shape products in their early stages, joining an online focus group or answering survey questions is a great way to make extra money online. They don’t pay as much as some of the other options we’ve highlighted, but you can join groups on sites like Survey Junkie, Swagbucks, and IPSOS that pay out through Amazon gift cards, check, or PayPal. You’ll be asked to provide a bit of information about your demographics (age, location, etc…), but after that you can get going making money through surveys.
A general rule is to choose a product with Gravity score of at least 20. If you can find one of more than 50, even better. But be careful when you get into the triple digits. This means that the product is having strong competition, so make sure you’re prepared. You can also read reviews of products to measure public opinion. Are there a lot of complaints? Are there enough amounts of refunds? Make sure the answer is no.
I was really thrilled to get to know that an affiliate program can help with getting more traffic to your site. As a matter of fact, it makes sense because only relevant sites will become your affiliates and that’s exactly how you will get links from related (relevant sites). Actually, even if a site is not relevant, it becomes one after it joins your affiliate program but it will use your products on its pages, which will make the site relevant. It’s a win-win and a no-brainer to make that happen but you still need to make sure that your properly promote your affiliate program before it gets off the ground and gets you traffic results.
(h) You will not store or cache Product Advertising Content consisting of an image, but you may store a link to Product Advertising Content consisting of an image for up to 24 hours. You may store other Product Advertising Content that does not consist of images for caching purposes for up to 24 hours, but if you do so you must immediately thereafter refresh and re-display the Product Advertising Content by making a call to PA API or retrieving a new Data Feed and refreshing the Product Advertising Content on your application immediately thereafter. Unless otherwise notified by us, you may store individual Amazon Standard Identification Numbers (ASINs) for an indefinite period until the termination of this License. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if your application includes a client application, the client application may not store or cache Product Advertising Content. Upon our request you will, within three business days of our request, furnish us with a copy of any client application that includes or uses Product Advertising Content for the purpose of verifying your compliance with this License.
Many people fancy themselves as designers. If you have a unique idea for a new product then it may be time to get it designed. This can be a long process involving prototypes, discussions with factories, package design, and much more. However, the profits once the product is on the market could be substantial. And remember, with Amazon FBA, your products can all be stored and shipped by Amazon, giving you time to think up your next invention. Learn more about Amazon FBA with my How To Start An Amazon FBA Business Guide.

Ready to enter the ecommerce fray? Why not sell your own stuff. Of course, along with selling your own stuff on your own website comes a whole slew of both responsibilities and technical configuration and requirements. For starters, you'll need a website and a hosting account. You'll also need a merchant account (sure you can use Stripe or PayPal). Then you'll need to design that site, build a sales funnel, create a lead magnet and do some email marketing.


I’m just starting at Clickbank, so I’m a total newbie, but if I want to follow this strategy can I do it promoting just one product, for example, Category>Health & Fitness —> X product. Then, should i start a blog or something like that where i can talk about things related to the product subject? if so, do i have to start making entries about this recurrently? or I can opt for just making an article with a free ebook in exchange to user’s e-mails and follow the process?
Education occurs most often in "real life" by becoming involved and learning the details as time progresses. Although there are several books on the topic, some so-called "how-to" or "silver bullet" books instruct readers to manipulate holes in the Google algorithm, which can quickly become out of date,[41] or suggest strategies no longer endorsed or permitted by advertisers.[42]
AWIN is probably best for experienced affiliates who can hit the ground running without a lot of guidance or feedback from the network. There is a $5 fee charged to apply to become an affiliate, but if you’re approved, the $5 will be added to your account. If your application is denied, however, you will lose the $5 fee. AWIN operates globally, but it is most heavily concentrated on British and EU merchants.
You will market Local Associates Products to Amazon customers only at those locations and through those methods by which you customarily conduct your registered business. Solely with respect to the Local Associates Program, and notwithstanding anything to the contrary in the Participation Requirements, you may include Special Links in written physical and digital materials (including email) which are displayed, distributed, emailed, or offered to customers, clients, or third parties with whom you have a preexisting relationship; provided, that such written physical and digital materials are in compliance with the Associates Program Operating Agreement, the Trademark Guidelines, and the Amazon Brand Usage Guidelines. Upon our request, you will provide us with representative sample materials and written certification that you have complied with the foregoing. We will specify the form of, and content required in, that certification in any such request. Any failure by you to provide the certification in accordance with our request will constitute a material breach of this Local Associates Policy. For the avoidance of doubt, (i) for the purposes of the CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 and any similar or successor legislation (CAN-SPAM), you are the “Sender” of each email containing any Special Links, (ii) for the purposes of the Communications Act of 1934 as amended by Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991 and any similar or successor legislation (TCPA), you “make” and “initiate” each text message containing any Special Links, and (iii) you must comply with CAN-SPAM, TCPA and marketing industry standards and best practices for all emails, texts, and other messages relating to the Local Associates Program. Amazon may revoke the offline marketing permissions granted in this Section 3 at any time in its sole discretion by providing written notice to you.
Get samples. When you first start out as a freelance writer, it can be hard to get work without any published samples. However, it is possible to get quality samples if you are willing to do some writing for free. First, you can publish content on your own blog or website. Also, you can write guest posts for someone else’s blog. Finally, you can write blog posts for free in exchange for a byline.[20]
While these models have diminished in mature e-commerce and online advertising markets they are still prevalent in some more nascent industries. China is one example where Affiliate Marketing does not overtly resemble the same model in the West. With many affiliates being paid a flat "Cost Per Day" with some networks offering Cost Per Click or CPM.
The phrase, "Affiliates are an extended sales force for your business", which is often used to explain affiliate marketing, is not completely accurate. The primary difference between the two is that affiliate marketers provide little if any influence on a possible prospect in the conversion process once that prospect is directed to the advertiser's website. The sales team of the advertiser, however, does have the control and influence up to the point where the prospect either a) signs the contract, or b) completes the purchase.
Hi Nate, I have been selling my product plus affiliate ones via Clickbank since 2011 and I constantly made about $100/week. Therefore, it’s good for me. And, the fact that is has been constant for 3 years – I guess that proves my product and my recommendations are good. Indeed, I am careful with what products I recommend: if those are not good, I prefer not to spoil my list of people.
The best way to make people give you their email address is to offer them something they find valuable for free. This is where the eBook comes in. You can write it yourself or hire Michael Kwan to write it. If you’re really cheap, you can use a PLR eBook. They’re just like PLR articles but in eBook size. Personally, I recommend you write it yourself or hire out the writing. The quality of PLR leaves a lot to be desired.
You can work as a virtual assistant through dedicated websites, such as Upwork or Zirtual. All kinds of skills are needed, and compensation can vary anywhere between $10 per hour to $100 or more. Obviously, the higher pay will be to people who have more technical skills, such as web building skills and marketing. But you can find work doing administrative tasks at the lower end of the pay scale.
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